Results from joint Japanese-German gravitational-wave observing run
Right after the third observing run of the international gravitational-wave detector network ended in March 2020, the Japanese KAGRA and the German-British GEO600 detector made an extra lap. They continued simultaneously taking data for two weeks in a joint observing run. KAGRA is the latest addition to the growing worldwide scientific collaboration, constructed underground with novel technologies. Results from the joint run were published in “Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics” (PTEP).
Results from joint Japanese-German gravitational-wave observing run
Constraining neutron-star matter with microscopic and macroscopic collisions
For the first time, an international research team, including researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) and Potsdam University has combined data from nuclear physics experiments, gravitational-wave measurements and other astronomical observations with theoretical insights to more precisely constrain how nuclear matter behaves inside neutron stars. The results were published in the scientific journal Nature today.
Breakthrough discovery: EHT´s unprecedented observations improve our understanding of what happens at the very centre of our galaxy
Astronomers have unveiled the first image of the supermassive black hole at the centre of our own Milky Way galaxy. This result provides overwhelming evidence that the object is indeed a black hole and yields valuable clues about the nature of such giants, which are thought to reside at the centers of most galaxies. The image was produced by a global research team called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration, using observations from a worldwide network of radio telescopes. The Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn plays a major role in all the aspects of this discovery, from founding and establishing the EHT collaboration to the final production and interpretation of the data.
The future gravitational-wave observatory in space completes a rigorous review
LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, has reached an important milestone: it has passed the comprehensive “Mission Formulation Review” (MFR) and now enters the next phase of development. The review team, consisting of experts from ESA, NASA, the scientific community and industry, identified no showstoppers and confirmed that LISA has successfully reached a maturity sufficient to proceed to the next stage of development.
The GRACE Mission was launched in 2002 and gave us 13 years of data on Earth’s gravitational field and on the global water cycle. Its successor, GRACE Follow-On, was launched in 2018. This mission is making very reliable and precise measurements with a laser interferometer in space. This data is more important than ever to help monitor and understand climate change.
Find out more about building a gravitational-wave catalogue and new gravitational-wave signals, and read about the new double suspensions for A+ active mirrors in O4 in: Of magic mirrors, evil losses and small creatures.
SAGEX is an Innovative Training Network funded by the European Union to train the next generation of world-leading scientists in the field of scattering amplitudes. Explore the web app, which allows you to experience the wonderful world of quantum particles, from basic concepts to cutting-edge ideas, through short videos, games, and other interactive elements.
Come along on a journey into our galaxy and learn how continuous gravitational waves are generated from neutron stars.
Neural network analyzes gravitational waves in real time
Researchers trained a neural network to estimate – in just a few seconds – the precise characteristics of merging black holes based on their gravitational-wave emissions. The network determines the masses and spins of the black holes, where in the sky, at what angle, and how far away from Earth the merger took place.
Gravitational-wave catalog update lists 35 new signals
Today the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the Virgo Collaboration, and the KAGRA Collaboration have published the latest version of their gravitational-wave catalog. The Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog 3 (GWTC-3) now contains 90 signals, 35 of which were not published before and which were observed in O3b, the second half of the third joint observing run “O3”, which ended on 27 March 2020. All signals come from merging black holes and neutron stars. The new catalog contains some surprises, such as an unusual neutron-star–black-hole merger, a massive black hole merger, and binary black holes revealing information about their spins. In parallel, the researchers published companion studies of the underlying population of black holes and neutron stars and the history of the expansion of the Universe. The detectors are currently being upgraded for O4, their fourth joined observing run, which is expected to begin late in 2022.
Today, the US National Academy of Sciences has noted the important presence in the NASA Program of Record for the implementation and execution of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Mission, led by the European Space Agency (ESA). Through observations of gravitational waves, LISA will offer an unprecedented and unique view of the Universe, quite different from any other space telescope. LISA will deliver pioneering scientific results enabling insights not available through electromagnetic observations, and combining LISA observations with those of other ground- and space-based facilities, will also allow scientists to make enormous advances in multi-messenger astronomy.
Find out more about first neutron star – black hole mergers as well as the search for young supernova remnants in O3 and more.
based on an INFN/Nikhef press release
The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has announced that the 3rd generation gravitational wave observatory “Einstein Telescope (ET)” will be part of 2021 upgrade of the ESFRI roadmap. This confirms ET’s relevance for future research in Europe and gravitational wave research at global level.
First robust detection of these rare events
LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA researchers present two new gravitational-wave events, which were detected within just ten days in January 2020 during the second half of the third observing run. The signal observed by the LIGO and Virgo detectors is the first robust detection of a black hole merging with a neutron star. The waves came from distances of more than 900 million light-years, where the neutron stars were swallowed whole by their black hole partners. While no light was seen from either event, the gravitational waves were heard loud and clear. They allow the researchers to draw first conclusions about the origin of these rare binary systems and how often they merge. The results were published in Astrophysical Journal Letters today. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Potsdam and Hannover and at Leibniz University Hannover have contributed to the discoveries and their interpretation.
Successful operation of the laser interferometer on board GRACE Follow-On began three years ago.
In mid-June 2018, it was “First Light!” for a novel laser instrument circling the Earth. The Laser Ranging Interferometer on both satellites of the German-US geodesy mission GRACE Follow-On was activated for the first time. At the first attempt, the instruments – 200 kilometers apart – were able to find each other 490 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. Since then, the system has been running reliably and has been delivering high-precision distance measurements in scientific data taking mode. Now, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute, AEI) and Leibniz University Hannover look back the successful first three years and towards the future.
It is May 4th 2021. The LPF mission has ended and the LISA mission is even now in the first phase of realization. LISA will be the largest space structure ever, but LISA is no Death Star. LISA’s mission: to probe the Dark Side of the Universe.
Happy Star Wars Day!
Event Horizon Telescope Observations of Polarised Radio Emission of the Supermassive Object in the Centre of M87
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) team, including astronomers at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, has revealed today new observations that are key to explaining how the M 87 galaxy is able to launch an energetic jet from its core. The new view of the massive object at the centre of the M 87 galaxy shows how it looks in polarised light. For the first time, astronomers have been able to measure the polarisation, a signature of magnetic fields, this close to the edge of a black hole. They publish a key snapshot in order to understand how a jet larger than the galaxy is launched.
Find out more about art, music & gravitational waves as well as results from observing run 3a and more.
Hannover research team develops most powerful laser system yet for gravitational-wave detectors
Future gravitational-wave detectors on Earth will use laser light with even higher power than in current instruments. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute, AEI), the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), and Leibniz University Hannover have now developed a new laser system for this purpose. They combined the custom tailored light from two high-power lasers so precisely that it meets the requirements for use in gravitational-wave detectors. In a next step, the researchers will improve their system at AEI so that it can be used as a centerpiece for next-generation detectors. The results have now been published in the journal Optics Express.
Relive the groundbreaking technology demonstrator’s mission milestones in a new Youtube mini-series released by the LISA Consortium.
German-British instrument mitigates quantum noise effects better than any gravitational-wave detector before
Gravitational waves cause tiny length changes in the kilometer-size detectors of the international network (GEO600, KAGRA, LIGO, Virgo). The instruments use laser light to detect these effects and are so sensitive that they are fundamentally limited by quantum mechanics. This limit manifests as an ever-present background noise which can never be fully removed and which overlaps with gravitational-wave signals. But one can change the noise properties – using a process called squeezing – such that it does not disturb the measurements as much. Now, GEO600 researchers have achieved the strongest squeezing ever seen in a gravitational-wave detector. They lowered the quantum mechanical noise by up to a factor of two. This is a big step to third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer. The GEO600 team is confident to reach even better squeezing in the future.
The Institute for Gravitational Physics at Leibniz University Hannover will do research on and improve interferometric precision measurements and laser links between satellites
The collaborative research center (Sonderforschungsbereich / SFB) “Relativistic and Quantum-Based Geodesy (TerraQ)”, funded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft / DFG), investigates novel methods of geodesy using fundamentally new sensors, measurement techniques, analysis methods and modeling approaches. Researchers of the Institute for Gravitational Physics at Leibniz Universität Hannover contribute their decades of experience and their worldwide leading role in the field of interferometric precision measurements and laser links between satellites. Basic research is thereby used in climate research and improves the precious data at its foundation.
New LIGO/Virgo catalog contains 50 gravitational-wave signals, several from unusual sources
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have published updates to their catalog of gravitational-wave signals, their astrophysical implications and more stringent tests of general relativity. The Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog 2 (GWTC-2) now contains 50 signals compared to 11 signals in the previous version. The 39 new discoveries were found in O3a, the first six months of the third joint observing run “O3”, which began on 1 April 2019. The new signals come from different astrophysical systems of merging black holes and neutron stars in all possible combinations. Some exceptional events have already been published in the previous months. While the new catalog contains many binary black hole mergers found routinely, it also features some more surprises, such as the most light-weight merger of two black holes or a possible merger of a black hole and a neutron star. Results from the second half of O3 will be published later and should contain more surprises from the Dark Universe.
Volunteer distributed computing project Einstein@Home discovers neutron star in unusual binary system
After more than two decades, an international research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover has identified a Galactic “mystery source” of gamma rays: a heavy neutron star with a very low mass companion orbiting it. Using novel data analysis methods running on about 10,000 graphics cards in the distributed computing project Einstein@Home, the team identified the neutron star by its regularly pulsating gamma rays in a deep search of data from NASA’s Fermi satellite. Surprisingly, the neutron star is completely invisible in radio waves. The binary system was characterized with an observing campaign across the electromagnetic spectrum, and breaks several records.
Turbulent evolution of the M 87* black hole image from 2009 to 2017
In 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration delivered the first image of a black hole, revealing M 87*—the supermassive object in the center of the Messier 87 galaxy. The EHT team, a collaboration with strong engagement of the MPI für Radioastronomie, has now used the lessons learned last year to analyze the archival data sets from 2009-2013, some of them not published before. The contribution of the APEX telescope is very important for the success of this analysis.
A quantum mechanical effect demonstrated for the first time in the Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detector
Quantum mechanics does not only describe how the world works on its smallest scales, but also affects the motion of macroscopic objects. An international research team, including four scientists from the MPI for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institut/AEI) and Leibniz University in Hannover, Germany, has shown how they can influence the motion of mirrors, each weighing more than 40 kg, in the Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detector trough the deliberate use of quantum mechanics. At the core of their experiment published today in Physcial Review Letters is a squeezed-light source, developed and built at the AEI in Hanover, which generates specially tuned laser radiation and improves the detector’s measurement sensitivity during observing runs.
The proposal to include the Einstein Telescope, a pioneering third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) observatory, in the 2021 update of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap has been submitted. The ESFRI roadmap describes the future major research infrastructures in Europe. The Einstein Telescope (ET) is the most ambitious project for a future terrestrial observatory for GWs.
Far-away black hole collision is the most massive and most distant ever observed by the gravitational-wave detectors
The fourth gravitational-wave detection from LIGO’s and Virgo’s third observing run published today is very big news: the most massive merger of two black holes ever observed to date. The black-hole collision formed a 142 solar-mass black hole when the Universe was half its current age. This is the first direct observation of the birth of an intermediate-mass black hole. Even more surprising is the heavier black hole in the pair: with 85 times the mass of our Sun, it should not exist according to the current understanding of stellar explosions, but it could be born from an earlier binary merger. It is unknown whether this signal, GW190521, is the first observed representative of a new class of binary black holes or is simply at the upper end of a wide mass spectrum. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Potsdam and Hannover and at the Leibniz University Hannover have made crucial contributions to the discovery and its interpretation.
The departments of Professor Alessandra Buonanno (Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute, AEI)) and Professor Zvi Bern (Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics (University of California in Los Angeles, UCLA)) will cooperate on developing waveform models for future gravitational-wave detectors. Senior researcher Dr. Justin Vines will perform the balancing act between particle physics at UCLA and gravitational wave modeling at the AEI. For the next two years, he will be based at AEI, then he will move over to UCLA. Long-term visits between both institutions are planned in order to maintain collaborations with researchers in Potsdam and Los Angeles. The goal is to foster the use of advanced computational techniques originating from quantum field theory to develop ever more accurate gravitational waveform models, enabling further discoveries with gravitational-wave detectors as they become more and more sensitive.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first gravitational wave observatory in space, to be launched 2034. It is one of the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) three large missions with contributions from NASA.
The LISA Symposium will take place online from September 1 to 3.
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LIGO and Virgo find another surprising binary system
The harvest of exceptional gravitational-wave events from LIGO’s and Virgo’s third observing run (O3) grows. A new signal published today comes from the merger of a 23-solar-mass black hole with an object 9 times lighter. The second object is mysterious: its measured mass puts it in the so-called “mass gap” between the heaviest known neutron stars and the lightest known black holes. While the researchers cannot be sure about its true nature, one thing is clear: the observation of this unusual pair challenges the current understanding of how such systems are born and evolve.
On the occasion of the 236th meeting of the American Astronomical Society the LISA Consortium launched a new movie about ESA´s LISA mission. LISA is a space mission led by ESA with contributions from NASA and many ESA member states. LISA will observe gravitational waves in space with three satellites connected by laser beams forming a constellation in a heliocentric orbit.
LIGO and Virgo detectors catch first gravitational wave from binary black hole merger with unequal masses
The expectations of the gravitational-wave research community have been fulfilled: gravitational-wave discoveries are now part of their daily work as they have identified in the past observing run, O3, new gravitational-wave candidates about once a week. But now, the researchers have published a remarkable signal unlike any of those seen before: GW190412 is the first observation of a binary black hole merger where the two black holes have distinctly different masses of about 8 and 30 times that of our Sun. This not only has allowed more precise measurements of the system’s astrophysical properties, but it has also enabled the LIGO/Virgo scientists to verify a so far untested prediction of Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
Visit founding director Prof Bernard F Schutz´ blog for the story:
Find out more about the O3 commissioning break, GW190425 and more here:
International team led by Max Planck researchers finds promising new candidates for gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers in public LIGO/Virgo data
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover together with international colleagues have published their second Open Gravitational-wave Catalog (2-OGC). They used improved search methods to dig deeper into publicly available data from LIGO’s and Virgo’s first and second observation runs. Apart from confirming the ten known binary black hole mergers and one binary neutron star merger, they also identify four promising black hole merger candidates, which were missed by initial LIGO/Virgo analyses. These results demonstrate the value of searches in public LIGO/Virgo data by research groups independent of the LIGO/Virgo collaborations. The research team also makes available its complete catalogue in addition to detailed analysis of more than a dozen possible binary black hole mergers.
International team uses a novel approach combining gravitational-wave observations, multi-messenger astronomy, and nuclear physics to obtain the best measurement of neutron star size to date.
An international research team led by members of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) has obtained new measurements of how big neutron stars are. To do so, they combined a general first-principles description of the unknown behavior of neutron star matter with multi-messenger observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Their results, which appeared in Nature Astronomy today, are more stringent by a factor of two than previous limits and show that a typical neutron star has a radius close to 11 kilometers. They also find that neutron stars merging with black holes are in most cases likely to be swallowed whole, unless the black hole is small and/or rapidly rotating. This means that while such mergers might be observable as gravitational-wave sources, they would be invisible in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Jahed Abedi, a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), shares the $10,000 First Prize of the annual 2019 Buchalter Cosmology Prize with Niayesh Afshordi (University of Waterloo and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics). The winners of the prize have been announced on 6 January 2020 at the 235th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu.
The international gravitational-wave detector network has observed what is most likely its second signal from merging neutron stars. The signal dubbed GW190425 was identified as a highly significant event by the LIGO Livingston and the Virgo detector on April 25, 2019. The signal comes from a distance of about 520 million light-years, four times farther away than the first gravitational wave from a binary neutron star merger detected in August 2017. No observations by electromagnetic or neutrino observatories related to this signal have been reported. While a binary neutron star merger is the most likely explanation, the combined mass of the system is much higher than that of other known such systems. This could be due to special formation circumstances of the system. It is also possible that one or both objects are light-weight black holes not previously observed.
A group of 47 researchers in Germany received a NASA award for their teamwork on the novel and very successful Laser Ranging Interferometer on board the GRACE Follow-On satellite tandem. Among them are 13 researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) and the Institute for Gravitational Physics at Leibniz Universität Hannover. The NASA Group Achievement Award was presented to the team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the end of October for “dedication and excellence in developing and successfully deploying” the laser instrument on board the GRACE Follow-On mission.
A squeezed-light source developed by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) for the Virgo gravitational-wave detector near Pisa has impressively demonstrated its capabilities in recent months. This is shown by the latest data published from the third observation run (O3) of the international detector network. The squeezed-light source reduces the dominant quantum mechanical detector background noise by about one third. This allows Virgo, for example, to detect gravitational waves from merging neutron stars up to 26% more frequently. The use of squeezed light also plays an important role for planned third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope. The squeezed-light source was delivered and commissioned at the beginning of 2018. Since the start of O3 on April 1, 2019, it has provided significantly improved Virgo sensitivity.
Anna Ijjas, leader of the recently established Lise Meitner Research Group “Gravitational Theory and Cosmology” at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute / AEI) in Hannover, and Paul Steinhardt, Albert Einstein Professor in Science at Princeton University, receive 1.3 million US-dollars for four years from the Simons Foundation. The goal of the newly funded initiative “New Directions in Cosmology and Gravitational Theory” is to develop and test theories of the origin, evolution, and future of the universe that challenge the standard view that the universe began with a big bang about 14 billion years ago. Ijjas’ group at the AEI Hannover receives 500 000 US-dollars that she will use towards building her research team, including support for graduate students and postdocs, workshops, conferences, and visitors.
Prof. Karsten Danzmann, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover and Director of the Institute for Gravitational Physics at Leibniz University Hannover, has been accepted into the Manager Magazine’s “Hall of Fame of German Research”. The award recognizes his lifelong, outstanding contributions to the advancement of research. The award was presented on 29 October in Berlin.
An international research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover has discovered that the radio pulsar J0952-0607 also emits pulsed gamma radiation. J0952-0607 spins 707 times in one second and is 2nd in the list of rapidly rotating neutron stars. By analyzing about 8.5 years worth of data from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, LOFAR radio observations from the past two years, observations from two large optical telescopes, and gravitational-wave data from the LIGO detectors, the team used a multi-messenger approach to study the binary system of the pulsar and its lightweight companion in detail. Their study published in Astrophysical Journal Letters today shows that extreme pulsar systems are hiding in the Fermi catalogues and motivates further searches. Despite being very extensive, the analysis also raises new unanswered questions about this system.